Modhera Sun Temple is dedicated to Modhera village in Mehsana district of Gujarat on the banks of Pushpavati river. This place is located 30 kilometers south of Patan. This Sun Temple is a unique example of unique architecture and handicrafts in India. This temple was built by King Bhimdev I of Solanki dynasty in the year 1024-1026.
Currently, it is under the auspices of the Archaeological Survey of India and worship is prohibited in this temple. The exterior of its porch and the pillars are very beautifully carved. There are stairs at the bottom of the tank and there are also some small temples. This sun temple complex was not built at that time. The main temple was built during the reign of Bhimdev I of the Chalukya dynasty. Earlier, during 1024-25, Mahmud of Ghazni invaded the kingdom of Bhim, and a detachment of about 20,000 men tried unsuccessfully to stop him at Modhera. Historian A.K. According to Majumdar, this sun temple was built in memory of this defense.
On the western wall of the complex, there is an inscription of “Vikram Samvat 1083” in Devanagari script, due to the position of the inscription, it is not considered as a date of manufacture. Stylistically, it is known that the kund with its corner temples was built in the early 11th century. The inscription is believed to be a date of destruction by Ghazni rather than construction. Bhima then returned to power. So the main temple, miniature and main temples at Kund were built only after 1026 AD. During the reign of Karna in the third quarter of the 12th century, a new hall was included with doors, verandahs and temple doors and chamber doors. This place was later known as Sita’s Chauri and Ramkund. Now there is no worship here. This temple is a monument of national importance and is under the supervision of the Archaeological Survey of India.
In terms of temples, this temple is the largest among the Solanki style temples in Gujarat. The temple is built on a single axis, consisting of three main parts:
1. The main part of the temple which consists of the sanctum sanctorum and the mandapa,
2. A separate hall at the front is a decorative archway, and a tank (reservoir) made of stones.
In which many small temples of small size have been built. The hall is not associated with a specific, but a slightly different type of structure. Both are built on the sent platform. Their roof collapsed a long time ago, now some of its lower parts are left. Both roofs are 15 feet 9 inches in diameter, but they are built differently. Which is of lotus shape.
The octagonal plan has beautifully carved stone pillars in the porch, which provide the basis for the decorative arches. The outer walls of the mandapa are specially surrounded with idols of 12 Adityas, Diklaps, Goddesses and Apsaras. The pavilion (or, the dance pavilion), which is built in an angular plan, is also equipped with beautiful pillars. The hall has semicircular ornate arches for entry from all four main directions. There is a large archway in front of the hall. Opposite it is a rectangular kund, called “Surya kund” (locals call it “Ram kund”). Platforms and stairs have been built around the kund to reach the water surface. Along with this, many small temples have been built inside the kund, dedicated to gods like Goddess Sheetalmata, Ganesha, Shiva (Natesh), Seshayi-Vishnu and others.
VR Dhiren Jadav